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《今日科创》我国首次在南极发现“海洋PM2.5”

发布时间:2018-01-13 18:08:00 作者:信息化处 来源:科创365、市科工信局-朱辉年

我国首次在南极发现“海洋PM2.5”

China discovers “PM2.5” particles in the Antarctic ocean for the first time

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在距离人类生活圈最远的南极海洋,微塑料再次被科学家发现。正在执行我国第34次南极科考任务的科学家近日在南极海域首次发现微塑料的存在。目前,学术界对微塑料的尺寸还没有共识,但通常认为是粒径小于5毫米的塑料颗粒,它也被科学家形象地比作海洋中的“PM2.5”。

In the Antarctic ocean, the farthest place to human’s sphere of life, micro plastics were once again discovered by scientists. China’s scientists on the 34th expedition to the South Pole recently discovered micro plastics in the Antarctic ocean, a first time in China’s history. There is no common view reached regarding the size of micro plastics, though plastic particles with a particle diameter under 5 millimeters are commonly regarded as micro plastic, which are also nicknamed “PM2.5 in the ocean” by scientists.


国家海洋局于2016年启动了我国近海的微塑料监测工作,并从去年开始开展北极、大洋环境的海洋微塑料监测工作,这将有力提升我国在海洋垃圾和微塑料领域的国际影响力,推进我国海洋微塑料监测融入全球海洋微塑料监测和国际治理。

State Oceanic Administration launched the monitoring on micro plastics in China’s offshore in 2016 and that in the Arctic as well as in the current last year, which would significantly boost China’s influence in the field of ocean trash and micro plastics and promote the integration of China’s monitoring on micro plastics to the global ocean micro plastics monitoring and governance circle.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



上海微系统所等在热电材料电子结构研究中取得进展

SIMIT makes progresses in the research about the electronic structure of thermoelectric materials

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近日,中国科学院超导电子学卓越创新中心、上海微系统与信息技术研究所信息功能材料国家重点实验室研究员沈大伟团队和浙江大学物理系研究员郑毅课题组合作,利用超高分辨角分辨光电子能谱和极低温量子输运测量两种互补技术,首次实现了对目前保持着热电优值最高纪录的热电材料SnSe的精细电子结构表征,并成功利用“缺陷工程”实现了对该材料电子结构和热电性能的有效调控,为进一步利用能带工程合成和改进高效能热电材料提供了必要依据。

Lately, Shen Dawei Research Team from the Center for Excellence in Superconducting Electronics and the national key laboratory of Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology joined force with Zhen Yi Research Team from the Department of Physics of Zhejiang University and succeeded in mapping the structure of the fine electronic structure of SnSe, which is the thermoelectric material with the best thermoelectric figure of merit in record, through using high-definition PES in complementation with ultra-low temperature quantum transport measurement. It also succeeded in using “defect engineering” to effectively regulate the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of this material, thus laying down a necessary foundation for using energy band engineering to synthesize and improve thermoelectric materials with high performance.


---上海科技

---www.stcsm.gov.cn



干细胞首次被培养为功能性人类肌肉

Stem cells developed into functional human muscle for the first time

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日前,美国杜克大学科学家首次利用源于皮肤或血液的人类诱导多能干细胞(iPS细胞),培育出了功能良好的人类骨骼肌肉。新研究为开发罕见肌肉疾病个性化模型,从而研制出新药,以及进行基础生物学研究提供了更简单的方法。

Lately, scientists in the Duke University in the United States have, for the first time, succeeded in using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) to develop human muscle with proper functions. The new research provides an easier solution for developing models for rare muscle diseases as well as their medicines and conducting basic biology researches.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



欧盟投资10亿欧元打造世界上速度最快的超级电脑

EU launches a ?1 billion project to build fastest supercomputer in the world

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近日,欧盟(EU)已经启动了一个新的10亿欧元项目,最终超越美国,中国和日本,在2023年前建成世界上最快的超级电脑。建成之后,这台超级电脑每秒可以运行quintillion次运算。

The European Union has launched a one billion euros project to build the world’s fastest computer by 2023, which will catch up to China, the U.S. and Japan. Once complete, the exascale supercomputer will be capable of one quintillion calculations per second.


---36Kr



智能人行横道 是斑马线也是红绿灯

A “smart crossing” prototype with LED lights under the road has been unveiled in London

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日前,英国研发出一条高科技智能人行横道,并在伦敦某一公路路段进行测试。这条智能人行横道相当于在公路上铺上了长达22米的LED面板,面板能防水还可感知压力,能识别是否有行人或车辆在通行。

Recently a Smart Crossing, a prototype developed by the UK, has been tested in London. Paved with LEDs, the 22 metre-long smart road surface is water-proof and can sense stress and identify the movement of pedestrian and vehicles.


---人民网

---people.cn



中欧合作制成地球同步气象卫星毫米波探测样机

EU and China co-develope geostationary weather satellite millimeter-wave atmospheric sensor prototype

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由中科院国家空间科学中心与欧空局联合研制的“中欧静止轨道毫米波大气探测仪样机”1月11日通过了中欧双方共同组织的验收,它为未来我国静止轨道气象卫星开展毫米波成像探测奠定了技术基础。

EU-China Geostationary Weather Satellite Millimeter-wave Atmospheric Sensor Prototype co-developed by the National Space Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science and European Space Agency (ESA) has passed the acceptance check organized by both parties. The prototype enables China to make inroad into millimeter-wave imaging and probing from geostationary weather satellites in the future.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



海森堡极限的量子精密测量首次实现

Quantum precision measurement achieves the Heisenberg limit for the first time

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中国科学技术大学郭光灿院士领导的中科院量子信息重点实验室在量子精密测量方向取得重要进展。该实验室李传锋、陈耕等人设计并实现了一种全新的量子弱测量方法,实验实现了海森堡极限精度的单光子克尔效应测量,这是国际上首个在实际测量任务中达到海森堡极限精度的工作,可利用的光子数达到10万个。研究成果日前发表在国际权威期刊《自然·通讯》上。

The Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is led by academician Guo Guangcan University of Science and Technology of China, has made significant progress in quantum precision measurement. The laboratory’s researchers including Li Chuanfeng and Chen Geng developed a new method for quantum weak measurement. This experiment achieved the Heisenberg limit in measurement of single photon Kerr effect. This is the first experiment worldwide that achieved the Heisenberg limit in actual measurements, with the number of photons available up to 100,000. The research has been published on the international authoritative journal Nature Communications.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



海苔高值化利用另辟蹊径

Researchers found a new way of high-value utilization of Enteromorph

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中国农业科学院最新消息,该院烟草研究所滩涂生物资源保护利用创新团队,针对影响环境和生态安全的天然原料——浒苔的高值化利用途径开展研究,初步探明了浒苔多糖在吸水、吸油、起泡等化工方面的功能活性和抗氧化、降血脂等方面的医用生物活性,并探索了浒苔多糖等活性物质的提取技术及下一步在食品药品领域产业化应用前景。相关研究成果在线发表于《高分子碳水化合物(Carbohydrate Polymers)》上。

According to Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the mudflat bioresources conservation and utilization innovation team of the Tobacco Research Institute carried out researches into exploring the ways of high-value utilization of Enteromorph, a natural raw material that affects the environment and ecological security. The team has preliminarily verified the material’s functional activities in water absorption, oil absorption, and foaming as well as medical biological activities in oxidation resistance and blood fat reduction. It also looked into the ways to extract active materials such as Enteromorph, and the prospects of commercializing the materials in food and drug industries. The research has been published on the online version of Carbohydrate Polymers.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



中法聚变联合研究中心揭牌

Sino-French Fusion Energy Center is inaugurated

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近日,由国家科技部与法国原子能委员会签订协议成立的中法聚变联合研究中心揭牌仪式在合肥科学岛举办,标志着中法在聚变能源领域的务实合作进入新局面,从之前双方科研机构之间的合作上升至国家政府层面之间的双边合作。

Recently, Sino-French Fusion Energy Center (SIFFER), which was jointly established by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), was inaugurated at Hefei Institute of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This marks a new dimension in bilateral pragmatic cooperation on fusion energy research, that is, from the previous cooperation between scientific research institutions of the two countries to cooperation between the two governments.


中法聚变科技合作始于上世纪80年代,法国Toresupra装置与我国HT-7装置展开了长达25年的科技合作,逐步转变为我国EAST装置与法国WEST装置的合作。WEST装置是法国原子能委员会核聚变研究所Tore Supra超导托卡马克装置升级的全钨偏滤器托卡马克装置。EAST是世界首个全超导托卡马克核聚变实验装置。此前双方已经成立联合实验室,在WEST离子回旋天线研制、EAST遥操作系统、联合物理实验、托卡马克长脉冲运行研究等方面开展了卓有成效的合作并取得丰富成果。

Sino-French cooperation on fusion energy research can be dated back to the 1980s. France’s Toresupra had cooperated with China’s HT-7 for as long as 25 years, and gradually it has been replaced by cooperation between China’s EAST and France’s WEST. WEST is a tungsten divertor tokamak updated from Tore Supra superconducting tokamak of CEA Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research. EAST is the world’s first experimental all-superconducting tokamak fusion reactor. The two sides have founded a joint laboratory which has achieved fruitful results in such areas as development of WEST ion cyclotron antenna and EAST teleoperation system, joint physical experiment, and research into tokamak long pulse operation.


---《科技日报》

---Science and Technology Daily



《张江每日速递》上海张江8家创业团队集体路演 B2B公司寻找新机会

Eight start-up teams in Zhangjiang held their roadshows – B2B enterprises looking for new opportunities

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1月10日,8家科技创业团队在上海张江国际创新港举办路演活动,包括雷亚数据科技、感融物联网、云安行等,涉及大数据、物联网、云计算等领域。

On January 10, teams from eight science and technology start-ups organized roadshows in Zhangjiang International Innovation Harbor in Shanghai, including Rayark, WSNCM, Cloudancing and covering fields such as big data, Internet of Things, and cloud computing.


此次路演的团队均为B2B公司。以感融科技为例,该公司面向厂商、供应链金融服务商、银行金融机构等客户,提供供应链过程中的管理服务,运用物联网技术,实现资金流、物流、商流和信息流的实时监视和控制。这一服务可以控制供应链中的风险,提高企业融资的可能性。

On January 10, teams from eight science and technology start-ups organized roadshows in Zhangjiang International Innovation Harbor in Shanghai, including Rayark, WSNCM, Cloudancing and covering fields such as big data, Internet of Things, and cloud computing.


---网易新闻

---news.163.com



中国人应有科技创新领跑的志气

Chinese people should have the aspiration to take the lead in sci-tech innovation

评论员科建

Commentator: Kejian


在国际权威学术期刊《自然》最新公布的2017《自然》十大科学人物中,中国物理学家、中国量子通信创立者潘建伟院士成为中国唯一当选者 。作为全球科学界公认的最权威刊物《自然》年底发布的最重量级的榜单,每一位入选者都是过去一年里在全球科学界最具影响力的人物。而潘建伟院士的入选,恰恰说明了中国在世界量子科学领域中是竞争的领跑者。潘建伟院士有一句名言,我们中国科技者在进行一项新的科研选题时,总习惯问美国是否在从事这方面的研究。如果没有,总认为自己不靠谱,因为中国人更习惯跟进、模仿。我们现在的团队证明了中国人在国内可以做很好的科学研究,也可做外国和前人未做过的研究。

Pan Jianwei, a leading Chinese physicist and the "father of quantum communications", is the only Chinese scientist who is included in the list of the 2017 Nature's 10 newly released by the international prestigious journal Nature. Widely recognized by the global science community as the most important list released by the Nature journal at the end of the year, every candidate included in this list is the most influential figure that mattered in the past year. The including of academician Pan in the list just proves the fact that China is at the leading edge in the field of world quantum science. Academician Pan once said that when Chinese scientists are taking on a new science research project, they can't help but tending to ask whether American scientists have done some research about it before. If not, they tend to assume that their ideas are unworkable because Chinese people are more accustomed to following and imitating. However, now our team has proven that Chinese people can conduct great scientific research within China and are also capable of doing research that foreigners and human beings have never done before.


潘建伟院士正因为有敢为人先、力争世界领跑的志向,才有持续的创新动力,才有协同合作的胸怀,才有攻艰克难的勇气,更有长期坚持的信心。在上海建设全球有影响力的科创中心进程中,学习潘建伟院士敢于让自己从事的科技创新走在全球前列的精神,必将激励我们确立新目标,力争新贡献。

It is because of his aspiration to be a pioneer and take the lead in the world science that academician Pan has the motivation to innovate, the open heart to collaborate, the courage to surmount difficulties and the confidence to persist. In the process of building a globally influential sci-tech innovation center in Shanghai, we should learn from academician Pan's aspiration of daring to make one's own sci-tech research a leading innovation in the world, which will inspire us to set new goals and strive for making a greater difference.

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